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Title :Physiological Study of Carrageenophytes (Betaphycus gelatinus, Eucheuma serra, E. denticulatum, Meristhotheca coacta, M. papulosa and Kappaphycus sp., Rhodophyta) from Japan and Indonesia
Title alternative :日本およびインドネシア産カラギーナン原藻(紅藻カタメンキリンサイ,トゲキリンサイ,キリンサイ, キクトサカ,トサカノリならびに Kappaphycus sp.)の生理学的研究
Authors :Lideman
Issue Date :14-Sep-2012
Abstract :Some species of Solieriaceae (Rhodophyta, Red Algae) i.e. Betaphycus gelatinus, Eucheuma serra, E. denticulatum, Meristotheca coacta, M. papulosa and Kappaphycus sp. (Sumba strain) were used in this study in order to examine their physiological activities based on their growth and photosynthetic performance affected by environmental factors especially temperature and light. This study was conducted base on a necessary to cultivate of these seaweeds because of their carrageenan content, intense harvesting in their habitat and the ocean global warming issue. Japan is one of the largest carrageenan importing countries in the world and the warm seawater area in southern part of Japan could be used in order to cultivate these carrageenophytes (macroalgae as a source of carrageenan) and to prevent them from over harvesting as edible seaweeds. Furthermore, increasing temperatures as a result of global warming may lead these macroalgae to change in spatial distribution in the future. However, there was a lack of basic information on how to cultivate these macroalgae, especially Japanese species.
An in vitro growth and photosynthesis study of B. gelatinus, E. serra and M. papulosa affected by temperatures and light were conducted. The growth rate of B. gelatinus and E. serra were optimum at temperature 24 to 28 °C and for M. papulosa, it was at temperature of 22 - 24 °C. At temperature 24 °C, B. gelatinus, E. serra and M. papulosa reached their saturating irradiance at 94.9, 69.4 and 35.4 µ mol photons m^{-2} s^{-1}, respectively. The cultivation of B. gelatinus can be conducted throughout a year in Ishigaki Is. (Okinawa), while for M. papulosa and E. serra cultivation is possible from May to August in southern part of Kyushu Is. (Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectures).
The author used the pulse amplitude modulated (PAM)-chlorophyll fluorometry (Imaging-PAM) in order to examine photosynthetic parameters of M. coacta and M. papulsa affected by temperatures and light. This equipment has been used for some seagrasses as well as terrestrial plants and can be applied quickly and efficiently in analyzing of photosynthetic response from the intact plants. Both species required temperatures ranging from 18 to 28 °C and the saturating photosynthetic active radiation (PARsat) increased with increasing temperatures. I provided equations of relation among the photosynthetic parameters and temperatures which should be useful to design and manage the program of mariculture and tank cultivation system. I suggest that both of the species can be successfully cultivated from April to August in Kyusyu Island (Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefecture).
Finally, the photosynthetic performances of tropical carrageenophyte species affected by temperatures and light were also investigated in Chapter 4. Cultured E. denticulatum and Kappaphycus sp. (Sumba strain) were collected at farming area in Funaga, South Sulawesi (Indonesia). PAM-chlorophyll fluorometry (Diving-PAM) was used to examine photosynthetic parameters. These results suggest that the optimal temperatures of these two species is most likely with the range of 22 to 32 °C, and corresponds well to surface temperature recorded in Indonesian ocean. Similar with result in chapter 3, PARsat value of E. denticulatum and Kappaphycus sp. measured in this study increased with increasing of water temperature.
紅藻カタメンキリンサイ(Betaphycus gelatinus)、トゲキリンサイ(Eucheuma serra)、キリンサイ(E. denticulatum)、キクトサカ (Meristotheca coacta)、 トサカノリ(M. papulosa)ならびに Kappaphycus sp. (Sumba strain)(ミリン科)の生長と光合成活性に及ぼす温度と光量の影響を明らかにした。
まず、カタメンキリンサイ、トゲキリンサイとトサカノリの生長と光合成活性に与える水温と光度の影響を室内実験により明らかにした。それによればカタメンキリンサイとトゲキリンサイの生長速度は 24〜28℃で最大となったのに対し、トサカノリは 22〜 24℃で最大となった。また、24℃における飽和光度を酸素電極を用いて測定したところ、各々 94.9、 69.4 と 35.4 µ mol photons m^{-2} s^{-1}の値を示した。ちなみに、カタメンキリンサイは沖縄県石垣島においては周年にわたり生育するが、九州南部に生育するトサカノリやトゲキリンサイは5〜7月に最大となる種である。
次に、 PAM光合成測定器 (Imaging-PAM)を用いてキクトサカとトサカノリの光合成に及ぼす温度と光度の影響を明らかにした。それによれば 18〜28℃における両種の光合成有効放射(PARsat) は温度の上昇にともなって増加した。この結果は、本種を培養する上で考慮されるべきであり、九州南部においては5〜8月が生長に適することが証明された。
さらに、インドネシア南スラウェシ産のキリンサイと Kappaphycus sp. (Sumba株) の光合成活性を水中用Diving-PAMによって測定した。それによれば、 22-32℃の温度範囲においては温度上昇にともないPARsat も増加することが分かったが、これはインドネシアの水温域での生長を裏付けるものであった。  本研究はこれらのカラギーナン含有藻類を養殖する時に必要な知見を得るのみならず、地球温暖化にともなう地理的分布を予想するために必要とされよう。
連合農学研究科博士論文(水産学) ; 学位取得日: 平成24年9月14日
Type Local :学位論文
Publisher :鹿児島大学
Appears in Collections:連合農学研究科・博士論文