"The purpose of this paper is to review research on the month of birth and sport involvement. It has been pointed out that players born early in the activity year are more likely to succeed in sports than are those born late. Relative Age Effect researches are categorized and examined with respect to the developmental differences among birth-month, sporting event, historical change, change of sport-career, international comparison, gender difference, etc. The Relative Age Effect varies with sporting events, countries, gender and playing level etc. The Relative Age Effect is not similar historically even in the same event because it is influenced by the social conditions around sports at any given time. How to organize youth sports is influenced strongly by the Relative Age Effect. In youth sports in which the size, weight and coordination ability of members vary considerably, instructors must coach players to overcome any disadvantages they might have encountered by virtue of the month of birth in which they were born. Some researches note that the Relative Age Effect is especially pervasive in Japan. The omnipresence of the cut-off date in Japan, April 1st., is referred to as one of the reasons. It is an interesting issue in Japan to examine how the teachers appreciate and take into consideration The Relative Age Effect in elementary school. It is hoped that some practical solutions are recommended to decrease the Relative Age Effect, taking into consideration such proposals as the Novem System shown in recent research."
"鹿児島大学教育学部研究紀要. 人文・社会科学編=Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University. Cultural and social science"
95 - 110
The Month of Birth as The Relative Age and Sport Involvement : Review of Previous Researches